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 1. She’s sitting by her computer and talking on the phone.

(by = next to)

woman working

 2. These beautiful buildings are by the water.

Would you like to live or work by a river or a lake?

 3. These office buildings are by a park.

 4. They’re sitting by each other and watching a movie.

 5. You can learn English by going online.

(by = method. When "by" means method or way, it’s usually followed by a gerund.)

What’s a gerund?

 6. You can split wood by using an axe.

 7. He’s a loan shark. By making loans at high interest rates, he has become very rich.
8. He’s a surfer. He rides on ocean waves by using a surfboad.

 9. You can get around this city very easily by bus.

(by = method of transportation: …by bus, ….by train, … car, … taxi, … plane, etc.)

10. The fastest way to get around this city is by subway.

11. He needs to get to his meeting by 5:30.

(by = before)

12. These buildings used to stand side-by-side until they fell down.

(side-by-side = together)

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