Perfect Modal Verbs
modal verb + have + past participle
could have _____
couldn’t have _____
|The boy could have done the dishes himself, but his father decided to help.|
should have ____
shouldn’t have ____
You did or didn’t do something that was a good idea.
The girl shouldn’t have spun around so many times. She got dizzy and fell down.
spin: turn around many times.
spin / spun / spun
would have ____
wouldn’t have ____
past condition /
|This house of cards would have fallen over if the person who built it hadn’t been so careful.|
may have _____
may not have _____
|My grandfather may have used this camera when he was a young man, but I’m not sure.|
might have ______
might not have _____
|Her mother might have put mustard on her sandwich. She hopes not.|
must have ____
must not have ___
This indicates that something probably happened in the past.
|They must have practiced a lot because they’re very good musicians.|
Let’s not forget…
The Future Perfect Tense
Unlike all the other modals above, will is used for the future:
Subject + will + have + past participle
|I will have lived|
We will have lived
|You will have lived|
You will have lived
|He will have lived|
|She will have lived|
They will have lived
|It will have lived|
This is a difficult tense to use. It describes an action that will be completed in the future.
I moved to Minnesota in 1991. The year now is 2008.
By 2011, I will have lived in Minnesota for 20 years.
Next: Lesson 13