having + past participle
In the Orange Level, you learn about sentence structure and how to put sentences together. In this lesson, you will learn how to use a form of sentence construction that is fairly common but not easy to put together. We use this type of a sentence to talk about past experiences and situations. Here are some examples:
The first sentence is an example of a participle clause. The subject is Maria for both parts of the sentence. However, we don’t know the subject is Maria until after the end of the participle clause, so the subject is implied.
The second sentence is an example of a gerund phrase that functions as a subject. "Having lived in Saudi Arabia for several years" matches the verb "provided" and the object is "Maria."
Here’s a video for you to watch. It’s not a perfect explanation for this, but I think it will help you. Afterwards, try the exercises that follow the video:
Exercise: Combine each pair of sentences to form one sentence.
Example. He lived in Spain for many years. He knows how to speak Spanish.
Having lived in Spain for many years, he knows how to speak Spanish.
1. I have been a teacher for many years. I know how hard the job is.
2. She saw the movie. She has decided it isn’t suitable for her children.
3. They have visited the island many times. They can get around it quite easily.
The answers are below.
1. Having been a teacher for many years, I know how hard the job is.
2. Having seen the movie, she has decided it isn’t suitable for her children.
3. Having visited the island many times, they can get around it quite easily.