1. She’s sitting by her computer and talking on the phone.

(by = next to)

woman working

 2. These beautiful buildings are by the water.

Would you like to live or work by a river or a lake?

water

 3. These office buildings are by a park.

city scene

 4. They’re sitting by each other and watching a movie.

couple at movie

 5. You can learn English by going online.

(by = method. When "by" means method or way, it’s usually followed by a gerund.)

What’s a gerund?
learning online

 6. You can split wood by using an axe.

splitting wood
 7. He’s a loan shark. By making loans at high interest rates, he has become very rich.
loanshark
8. He’s a surfer. He rides on ocean waves by using a surfboad. surfer

 9. You can get around this city very easily by bus.

(by = method of transportation: …by bus, ….by train, …..by car, …..by taxi, …..by plane, etc.)

bus
10. The fastest way to get around this city is by subway. subway train

11. He needs to get to his meeting by 5:30.

(by = before)

getting to work

12. These buildings used to stand side-by-side until they fell down.

(side-by-side = together)

towers